There are many different materials that are available o the 3D printing community. Most material comes on a roll in 2 different diameters, 2.85mm & 1.75mm.
Some of the more common plastics are listed below.
PLA - (Polylactic Acid) PLA is one of the most commonly used 3D printer filament because it is easy to use and is a friendly, nontoxic, bio-degradable material derived from renewable resources such as field corn.
ABS - (Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene) one of the most popular 3D printer filament because it is strong and easy to print. ABS is durable and well suited for detailed and demanding 3D prints. Ideal for prototypes as well as functional 3D printed parts.
ASA - (Acrylonitirle Styrene Acrylate) is a UV-resistant weatherable polymer. ASA's UV-stability makes it an ideal material for outdoor applications that will experience intense exposure to the sun and weather.
ABS/Flame Resistant - (Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene) Flame Resistant / Retardant thermoplastic filament is a premium grade material that is well suited for demanding 3D printing application where flame resistance is preferred or required.
Carbon Fibre/ABS - Carbon Fiber reinforced ABS is made from Carbon Fibers infused with ABS (Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene). Stronger and lighter than standard ABS, more impact resistant and longer lifespan.
Nylon - High strength alternative to PLA and ABS, very durable, strong and chemically resistant material, enabling you to print engineering grade functional parts such as gears.
TPE - (Thermoplastic Elastomer) is a high strength flexible filament and bendable like rubber. Resistant to oil, grease and abrasions and has many applications including; automotive, power tools, sporting goods, medical devices, drive belts, footwear, inflatable rafts, profile applications, etc. TPE is also a popular material found in outer cases of mobile electronic devices, such as mobile phones.
TPU - (Thermoplastic Polyurethane) is an elastic, very flexible and soft material that is almost odorless. It is similar to rubber. TPU is resistant to oils and grease and it is very resistant to abrasion. If an object is bent/deformed and then released, TPU will go back to its original shape while TPE will struggle to go back to the original shape and if overstretched will deform.
There are many other materials available ranging from medical grade, food safe, metal infused and even conductive filament. More new materials are always being added so keeping up is a challenge.